History has seen multiple wars. From the Peloponnesian War to the First Great War, many lost their lives while many rulers triumphed. Until recently, the world did not understand the norm of deterrence. The unveiling of nuclear power in the Second World War in Japan’s Hiroshima and Nagasaki was the beginning of a deterrence policy that has kept warfare at its lowest till date.
Wars, in the most common sense, are conflicts between two groups, mainly political. It involves hostilities, use of arms, destruction, and death. There are various schools of thought that understand war from different angles.
Today, let us explore some war histories and chronicles that have made a significant mark in the historical timeline.
Exploring War Histories And Chronicles
War histories will continue to fascinate us and help us learn about worldly affairs. In this digital age, you will find information regarding wars on different platforms, like podcasts on Spotify or even videos on YouTube. If you want to start a channel, you can always gain quick followers for a jumpstart.
Here, let us walk through some famous narratives of the greatest wars history has ever seen.
The Peloponnesian War
“History of the Peloponnesian War” by Thucydides is the most extensive and famous chronicle of the Peloponnesian War.
The Peloponnesian War is one of the most significant events in Ancient Greek history. The war was fought between the two most powerful city-states of ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. The war ended by shifting the power from Athens to Sparta, making the latter the most powerful in the region.
Sparta and Athens had fought before the outbreak of war. However, they agreed to a truce called the Thirty Years’ Treaty. But when Athens allied itself with an important colony of Corinth, Sparta accused Athens of violating the Treaty, beginning the war.
The war was divided into two periods, separated by a six-year truce. The first period lasted for 10 years. The Athenians used naval power while the Spartan army raided lands within Athenian territories. After years of warfare, the Spartans offered peace, and the Athenians accepted. However, it only lasted for six years.
The second period began with the Athenians launching an assault on Sicily. Another decade of war followed, and eventually got concluded with the victory of Sparta.
World War I
“A World Undone: The Story of the Great War, 1914 to 1918″ by G.J. Meyer is the most comprehensive book that offers a detailed narrative of World War I.
World War I is also referred to as the Great War. It was the first great war that the 20th century witnessed between two main groups of political powers. The Allied group consisted of France, Russia, and Britain, and the central group included Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
There were a series of events that fueled the war. The build-up started in 1914 with the new international expansionist policy of Germany. Later, Mutual Defense Alliances began to form the Triple Alliance of the central powers and the Triple Entente of the Allied powers. These agreements divided Europe into two rival groups.
While imperialism and militarism added fuel to the war, the immediate cause was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, he was shot by a Serbian person in Sarajevo. As a result, Austria declared war on Serbia, and all the alliances got involved.
The war occurred on different fronts in Europe, Africa, and Asia. On the Western Front, the Germans fought Britain and France. On the Eastern Front, the Russians fought Germans and Austro-Hungarians. In 1917, America joined the Allied forces and managed to counterattack the German army.
The war ended with the defeat of the German allies and the signing of the Armistice in 1918. The Great War was over, and the Treaty of Versailles was signed to prevent another war.
World War II
The Second World War began in 1939. Although it involved almost every part of the world, the main powers were the Axis and the Allies. The former included Germany, Italy, and Japan, and the latter included the Soviet Union, France, Great Britain, and the United States.
The cause of war includes many things. The main events being the impact of the Treaty of Versailles, economic depression, and militarism. However, when the rise of Nazism and Fascism was at its peak, Germany invaded Poland under the advice of Adolf Hitler. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany, and the war began.
Germany attacked Denmark and Norway, conquering more nations further. The war then spread to the Battle of Britain, where Germany faced its first military failure. In the next step, Italy invaded Greece and North Africa. Later, in 1941, Germany started invading the Soviet Union. However, it led to the beginning of Germany’s invasion’s downfall.
In 1944, Britain and America launched a D-Day invasion. Landing in German-occupied France via the coast of Normandy, they forced the German army to retreat. By early 1945, the German forces felt pressurized from both east and west. Germany surrendered after the Soviets reached Berlin and the suicide of German leader Adolf Hitler.
However, on the Pacific corner, the war had a different angle. After Japan launched a surprise attack at Pearl Harbor, a U.S. Navy base, in 1941, the United States declared war on Japan. Fighting continued till early 1945 between the two powers. Finally, with the bombardment of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan surrendered, and the war officially ended.
These wars will forever remain in the historic timeline of human existence. Not only were they the deadliest, but they were also the most influential warfares that made significant changes to world affairs after.